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Study finds Jupiter's mystery jet-streams run deeper than thought

Study finds Jupiter's mystery jet-streams run deeper than thought

He said in an email that it was wrong deduction. "Since Jupiter is basically a giant ball of gas", explains Prof. One suggested that the winds extend far down towards the surface, going as deep as 10000 kilometers that were driven by heat from the depths of the planet.

Where winds are blowing east, that motion adds speed to the planet's already high rotational speed of about 43,000 kilometers per hour (27,000 miles per hour).

"The more profound the planes, the more mass they contain, prompting a more grounded flag communicated in the gravity field". It was precisely the gravity variations associated with different atmospheric densities and wind speeds in the two hemispheres (north and south) that provide the key to exploring the depths of the planet. "Flows are associated to density variations, pretty much as winds on Earth are caused by high and low pressure areas". Tristan Guillot of the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, looks below the atmosphere, suggesting that beneath the level of the winds, the gas rotates more or less as a single body, nearly as if it were a solid. "With further studies, they can understand the forces at play in the swirling storms", O'Neill said. The findings were confirmed with all the researchers getting the same measurements.

The study, authored by scientists from an worldwide group of institutions including the University of Chicago, is published in Nature as part of a set of four papers dedicated to new observations from the Juno spacecraft.

The finding is important for understanding the nature and possible mechanisms driving these strong jet streams.

According to NASA, the recent revelations will improve the understanding of Jupiter's interior structure, core mass and eventually, the origin of Jupiter.

After a painstaking analysis that modeled all known sources of acceleration for Juno, including the minute contributions from sunlight warming the spacecraft, Iess's team found a large north-south asymmetry in Jupiter's gravitational field-a clear sign of material flowing beneath the cloud tops on deep atmospheric winds.

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Scientists now estimate Jupiter's atmosphere makes up about 1 percent of the planet's total mass.

When Juno co-investigator Alberto Adriani and colleagues got attractive images from Juno's Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument, they were stunned: Jupiter's poles were a stark contrast to the more familiar orange and white belts and zones encircling the gas giant at lower latitudes.

These and other upcoming studies could perhaps shed light on a newfound mystery, presented in a fourth paper published by members of the Juno team in Nature this week. As the planet's gravity pulls on the spacecraft in its flyby, the radio signal is also shifted a bit; this tiny shift in the wavelengths is measurable.

Juno's Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper data was used to construct this stunning view of cyclones at Jupiter's North Pole. Kaspi explained that the planet's wind belts, which are much stronger than the fiercest winds on Earth with speeds of up to 220 miles per hour in places - stronger than a Category-5 hurricane, cause an imbalance in its distribution of mass. Measuring this imbalance - changes in the planet's gravity field - would allow them to calculate how deep the storms extend below the surface. There are multiple cyclones, and they're arranged in a polygon shape.

NASA's Juno mission observed images of complex structures beneath Jupiter's surface.

"We've seen that a lot of our expectations were wrong", says Scott Bolton, the principal investigator of the Juno mission and the director of space science and engineering at the Southwest Research Institute.

Researchers say gravity measurements collected from Juno indicate the planet's turbulent outer layer extends to a depth of 1,900 miles.


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